The most popular robot in China has established an

2022-08-06
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Under the background of a new round of industrial revolution, how will China meet the robot era? An exclusive interview was made with Professor Zhaojie, head of the intelligent robot subject expert group of the National 863 program and director of the Robotics Research Institute of Harbin Institute of technology

: under the background of the new round of industrial revolution, how is the robot industry affecting the global industrial pattern

Zhaojie: the rapid development and application of robot technology will become an important driving force for the future economy. It can not only promote the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure and industrial development, but also bring about a profound change in production mode, thus reversing the inversion of virtual economy and real economy

robots are becoming an entry point and an important growth point of the new industrial revolution, which will affect the global manufacturing pattern. Their R & D, manufacturing and application have become an important symbol to measure the level of a country's scientific and technological innovation and high-end manufacturing industry. In this area, developed countries are actively making arrangements. In 2013, the United States formulated the robot development plan and road map, striving to consolidate its leading position in the robot field and provide support for the return of its manufacturing industry. The EU has launched the horizon 2020 research program with a total investment of 2.8 billion euros, which is the largest civil robot research program in the world so far

: at present, there are different opinions on the definition of robot. What is a robot from the perspective of scientists? What impact will robots bring to human production and life? What significance does it have for China's economic transformation and upgrading

Zhaojie: robot is actually a tool. The robot in everyone's mind is different from the actual robot. Many people imagine it as what it looks like in the movie, but in fact it is not limited to a certain form. Its essence is an intelligent device and a tool that can help human beings do a lot of work

whether you like it or not, we will enter the robot era. In the near future, every family and factory will have robots, and robots will move around everyone. However, robots can not completely replace people. Machines are machines and tools invented by human beings. With the acceleration of industrialization, China has been recognized as a large manufacturing country in the world. At the same time, the labor cost is rising and the demographic dividend is disappearing. The transformation and upgrading of traditional industries has become a top priority. The development of intelligent manufacturing technology with industrial robots as the core will become an inevitable way. At present, the average installed capacity of industrial robots in China is far lower than the world level. IFR data show that in 2013, the density of industrial robots in the world (the number of industrial robots per 10000 workers) was 58, while that in China was only 23. Low robot density, high labor cost and structural shortage of labor force make China's robot market have great potential. According to the calculation that China has 100million manufacturing workers for the external connection and data transmission between convenient systems and computers, in order to reach the current medium level in Italy in the future, more than one million robots need to be added; In order to reach the relatively high-end level like Germany, it needs more. The future market is huge

: what is China's level in the competition of the international machine industry due to the fact that the change-over switch is switched on in the fast retractor industry

Zhaojie: compared with foreign advanced countries, the gap in robotics research in China is small, mainly in the industry

at present, the production scale of industrial robots in China is still small, and most of them are single piece and small batch production. Due to the dependence on imports of key parts and components, some core technology research has yet to be mature, so they do not have competitive advantages in terms of cost and performance. In addition, foreign manufacturers' high-end industrial robots have the advantage of first mover scale and adopt the strategy of reducing the price of the whole machine, In the future, the domestic market will be dominated by high-end robot applications or foreign products. Taking the new installed capacity in 2013 as an example, the installed capacity of domestic autonomous industrial robots is nearly 9600, accounting for about 26% of the new installed capacity in that year, but the main body is the three-axis and four axis industrial robots with low unit price, which are mainly used in fields with relatively low performance requirements. In addition, major foreign robot enterprises are no longer satisfied with taking China as a product sales and technical service market. Foreign robot leading enterprises establish production bases in China, seize the commanding heights of industrial development by virtue of their existing technical advantages, and regard the Chinese market as a decisive battlefield in the future. The market space for the development of domestic independent brand production enterprises will be further compressed. If we do not catch up as soon as possible, the gap between the development of China's robot industry and that of foreign countries will be further widened

: why is there such a gap

Zhaojie: the reason for these problems lies in the dependence on imports of key components, especially in the gap between High-Performance AC servo motors and high-precision reducers, resulting in the high cost of domestic industrial robots, which seriously restricts the maturity of the robot industry and the formation of international competitiveness; In order to win national project support, some research institutions or enterprises excessively pursue high indicators and high performance, ignoring the demand of most robot markets in China for cost-effective robots, making the cost of industrial robots too high, even higher than that of similar foreign products, resulting in the inability to promote the wide application of products; Many technical aspects of industrial robots are still at the level of imitation, and the lack of innovation ability restricts the expansion of the robot market; The disconnection between basic, technical research and application and industrial demand is serious, which makes some robot core technologies in the laboratory stage and restricts the process of robot industrialization

: how do you think we should seize the commanding heights of the robot industry in the fierce international competition

Zhao Jie: to solve these problems and seize the commanding heights of the robot industry, the state needs to issue corresponding incentive policies in capital, tax, product sales subsidies and other aspects, provide continuous support in capital and policies, encourage enterprises to adopt domestic robots, and require the government to lead the formation of an orderly and detailed industrial chain for the development, production, manufacturing, sales, integration and service of industrial robots; It is necessary to establish a real industry university research application alliance and form a strong research, development, production and application team; At this stage, we should get out of the misunderstanding of pursuing high indicators and focus on high cost performance; It is also necessary to constantly explore new fields and new models of robot application in combination with national conditions. For example, there is a big gap between China's industrial robots and developed countries, but China's service-oriented robots started at about the same time as those in foreign countries. Moreover, with the accelerated formation of an aging society, the market will be large in the future. For the robot industry, the next 8 to 10 years will be a window period. We should seize the opportunity to develop

: what trends will appear in China's robot industry in this window period

Zhaojie: first, the market demand is huge. In 2013, China has become the largest robot market in the world, and the new installed capacity accounts for about one fifth of the new installed capacity in the world. It is expected that it will increase by 25% every year in the next five years

second, it has a wide range of applications. The automobile industry will no longer be the industry with the largest demand for industrial robots. Many industries, such as the electronics manufacturing industry and the food and drug industry, will become the leaders in the demand for industrial robots, showing a trend that the coastal demand is higher than the mainland demand, the private enterprise demand is higher than the state-owned enterprise demand, and the middle and low-end demand is higher than the high-end high-performance machine demand

third, the manufacturing industry with low technology content and low product added value in the manufacturing industry chain has become the focus of industrial robot application in China. China's labor-intensive industrial development model, which has lasted for nearly 30 years and relies on low labor costs as the main means of competition, has encountered severe challenges with the rapid rise of China's labor costs and the loss of the advantage of demographic dividend. There has been a structural shortage of labor and a shortage of labor. Using industrial robots to replace labor is in line with China's new comparative advantage

: These are the application fields of robots. For the robot industry, can it also drive the development of other related industries

Zhaojie: Yes, the tensile strength is reduced to the lowest; When the dosage of CPE is 60 ~ 80 phr. The whole robot industry chain is mainly divided into three levels: upstream core parts, midstream equipment manufacturers and downstream industry applications. It can be said that robots have a strong driving effect on upstream and downstream related industries

the robot industry can not only promote the transformation and upgrading of the application robot industry, profoundly change its production mode, industry outlook and industrial layout, but also greatly drive the manufacturers of core components such as robot reducer, AC/DC servo motor and controller, as well as upstream industries such as CNC machine bed and new materials

: obviously, if we want to seize the commanding heights in the robot industry, we must also pay attention to forward-looking basic frontier research. What is the international status of frontier research on robots? How is China's layout in the frontier research field of robotics

Zhaojie: networking, digitalization and intelligence have become an important trend in the development of robot technology

after nearly 30 years of development, China's robots have initially established a R & D system from the announcement by the Ministry of industry, trade and resources of South Korea to integrate the efforts of domestic research institutions and enterprises in South Korea to promote the commercialization of graphene, from basic research on robot application to industrialization, and have made considerable progress in the industrialization of industrial and service robots, the research and application of special robot technology, and the reserve of robot cutting-edge technology

at the same time, a new generation of robot technology focusing on the international commanding heights is implementing the layout. Bionic robots such as humanoid and quadruped, as well as unit technologies such as new mechanisms, environmental perception, intelligent control and man-machine cooperation, have made a number of innovative achievements, and have begun to plan the Research of a new generation of robots to provide technical reserves for China to participate in international competition

in addition, many national ministries and commissions are also organizing the formulation of China's robot technology roadmap and the 13th five year plan for the robot industry

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